VOLTAGE REFERENCE DIRECTIONS

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DEMO 1 - Slide the mouse over the circuit to see how reversing V2's reference direction affects the sign of the voltage. Note that the boxes contain circuit elements like batteries and light bulbs.



DEMO 2 - Slide the mouse over the circuit to see how reversing V2's reference direction affects the relationship between V1 and V2.


DEMO 3 - Slide the mouse over the circuit to see how reversing V2's reference direction affects the relationship between V1 and V2. Note that the boxes contain circuit elements like batteries and light bulbs.


DEMO 4 - Slide the mouse over the circuit to see how reversing the leads of the voltmeter affects the sign of the voltage being measured. Note that the boxes contain circuit elements like batteries and light bulbs.